The particular interest of IL-17, a homodimeric cytokine of about 32 kDa, is the strict requirement for an activation signal to induce its expression from a rather restricted set of cells, human memory T cells or mouse alpha beta TCR+CD4-CD8- thymocytes. In contrast with the tightly controlled expression pattern of this gene, the IL-17 receptor, a novel cytokine receptor, is ubiquitously distributed but apparently more abundant in spleen and kidney. In addition to its capture by the T lymphotropic Herpesvirus Saimiri (HVS), this cytokine is inducing the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, PGE2, MCP-1 and G-CSF by adherent cells like fibroblasts, keratinocytes, epithelial and endothelial cells. IL-17 is also able to induce ICAM-1 surface expression, proliferation of T cells, and growth and differentiation of CD34+ human progenitors into neutrophils when cocultured in presence of irradiated fibroblasts. In vitro, IL-17 synergizes with other proinflammatory signals like TNF alpha for GM-CSF induction, and with CD40-ligand for IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 secretion from kidney epithelial cells. In vivo, injection of IL-17 induces a neutrophilia, except in IL-6-KO mice. The involvement of IL-17 in rejection of kidney graft has also been demonstrated. The role of this T cell secreted factor in various inflammatory processes is presently investigated.