Object: In this study the authors report on the results of endovascular treatment for mural-type vein of Galen malformations (VGMs) in a group of infants.
Methods: Eight children (six infants and two neonates) who suffered from symptoms caused by a mural-type VGM were treated by means of endovascular therapy. Their age at the time of treatment ranged from 13 days to 19 months (mean 7.6 months). Two neonates and three infants who presented with hydrocephalus and increased head circumference, one of whom was stabilized with a shunt, underwent elective closure of the malformations 3, 4, 6, 6, and 13 months later, respectively. Two patients presented with hemorrhage; one had an intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) on the 1st day of life and one, a 5-month-old infant, suffered a large parenchymal hemorrhage and an IVH; both patients were immediately cured by means of endovascular techniques. One child presented with a seizure and cortical venous drainage that were treated immediately. Eleven separate treatment sessions were conducted; eight via transarterial femoral access and the remaining three via a transvenous approach. Two patients were treated by using transfemoral transvenous embolization with fibered coils, and one patient required a transtorcular transvenous approach to permit complete closure of the fistula with electrolytically detachable coils. The embolic devices used included silk suture emboli (three patients), electrolytically detachable coils (three patients), and fibered platinum coils (seven patients). In seven patients, complete closure was demonstrated on postembolization arteriographic studies. The eighth patient had stagnant flow in a giant 6-cm varix treated with arterial and venous coils but has not yet undergone follow-up studies. Late follow-up arteriography was performed in four patients at times ranging from 11 to 24 months postprocedure. In one patient, thrombosis of the malformation and shrinkage of the varix were confirmed on follow-up computerized tomography scanning. The remaining three patients have not yet undergone follow-up angiographic examination. Two asymptomatic complications occurred, including separation of the distal catheter, which was removed with a snare device, and a single platinum coil that embolized to the lung, producing no symptoms in 101 months of clinical follow up. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 105 months, with a mean of 52 months.
Conclusions: Endovascular therapy is the treatment of choice for mural-type VGMs and offers a high rate of cure with low morbidity.