The age related incidence rate of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus shows a bimodal distribution, not only in Caucasians but also in Japanese. To evaluate the onset age-related autoimmune profile at presentation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody, islet cell antibody (ICA), and insulin autoantibody (IAA) were measured in 137 newly diagnosed Japanese IDDM patients with onset ages between 0-29 years. The prevalence of GAD autoantibody was significantly increased from the lowest (32%) in the 0-5 years onset age group to 75% in the 13-19 years onset age group (P < 0.05), whereas the IAA prevalence significantly decreased from the peak (48%) in the 6-12 years onset age group to 10% in the 20-29 years onset age group (P < 0.05). The ICA prevalence was increased from the lowest (32%) in the 0-5 years onset age group to the highest (53%) in the 20-29 years onset age group similar to that for the GAD autoantibody. Such results demonstrate that there was age-related autoimmune characteristics at presentation of IDDM in Japanese as well as in Caucasians.