Leukocyte infiltration in response to I/R injury is a well-known but poorly understood phenomenon. The contribution of neutrophils in this process is still controversial. Despite numerous data, little is known about exact numbers of infiltrating neutrophils. The role of monocytes/macrophages in this process is even more unclear. The role neutrophils in the kidney and other organs was reviewed. The variability in models and methods for neutrophil quantification were examined, along with carrying out a critical overview of depletion and anti-adhesion approaches. Nevertheless, the exact role attributed to neutrophils in the I/R process remains unclear.