Background: A study was designed to evaluate the effect of acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage on glycemic index (GI) of bread.
Methods: Twelve patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and ten healthy volunteers were studied. Three meal tests with an intake of 90 g of white bread (50 g of carbohydrates) were performed on each subject. In one test, 200 mg of acarbose was given, while 15 g of P. psyllium mucilage was given in another test, and only bread was ingested in the control test. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured every 30 min from 0-180 min. Net area under curve (AUC) concentrations of glucose and insulin, GI and insulinic index were calculated.
Results: In NIDDM patients, AUC-glucose in the test with acarbose (1.9 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) and with P. psyllium (4.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/L) were significantly lower than in the control test (7.4 +/- 1.5 mmol/L) (p < 0.01). GI of bread plus acarbose was 26 +/- 13, and of bread plus P. psyllium, 59 +/- 10 (p < 0.05). AUC-insulin and insulinic index behave similarly. In healthy individuals, AUC-glucose and GI did not significantly change with the treatments; however, insulinic index with acarbose was 17 +/- 16, and with P. psyllium was 68 +/- 15 (p < 0.05). Acarbose or P. psyllium decreased GI of bread in NIDDM patients and diminished insulinic index in NIDDM and in healthy subjects.
Conclusions: Adding acarbose or P. psyllium to meals may reduce glycemic index of carbohydrate foods and may help diabetic control.