Cruciferous vegetables in relation to renal cell carcinoma

Int J Cancer. 1998 Jul 17;77(2):211-6. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19980717)77:2<211::aid-ijc7>;2-t.


Little is known about the possible role of diet in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A population-based case-control study was conducted in non-Asians of Los Angeles; it included 1,204 RCC patients and an equal number of neighborhood controls matched to the index cases by sex, date of birth (within 5 years) and ethnicity. Information on intake frequencies of food groups rich in vitamins A and C, various carotenoids and nitrosamines or their precursors was collected through in-person, structured interviews. After adjustment for non-dietary risk factors including level of education, obesity, history of hypertension, cigarette smoking and regular use of analgesics and amphetamines, there were strong inverse associations between cruciferous and dark green vegetable intakes and RCC risk (both p values for linear trend < 0.001). In terms of nutrients, there were significant inverse associations of RCC risk with consumption of a variety of carotenoids including alpha-carotene (p < 0.001), beta-carotene (p = 0.004), beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.01) and lutein (p = 0.005). However, after adjustment for these nutrients, we still observed a significant residual effect of cruciferous vegetables, suggesting that other substances present in these vegetables may be responsible, at least partially, for the observed reduction in risk of RCC. Dietary nitrosamines and their precursors were not related to RCC risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Body Mass Index
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coffee / adverse effects
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Los Angeles / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Tea / adverse effects
  • Vegetables*


  • Coffee
  • Tea