Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures

Int J Cancer. 1998 Jul 17;77(2):228-35. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19980717)77:2<228::aid-ijc11>3.0.co;2-7.

Abstract

We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China / ethnology
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Food Preservation
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Malaysia
  • Male
  • Meat
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Seafood
  • Social Class
  • Vegetables