New syndrome with the Sakoda complex, bilateral anophthalmia, and cortical dysgenesis

Pediatr Neurol. 1998 May;18(5):445-51. doi: 10.1016/s0887-8994(97)00231-2.


An 8-year-old Japanese boy had Sakoda complex (basal encephalomeningocele, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cleft lip and/or palate) associated with bilateral anophthalmia, dysgenesis of the cerebral cortex, severe mental retardation, and intractable epilepsy as core symptoms and hemiparesis, microcephalus, short stature, and hemivertebra. Tada and Nakamura described the first case of the Sakoda complex associated with bilateral anophthalmia, cortical dysgenesis, neonatal-onset seizures, and severe mental retardation. Fourteen patients with the Sakoda complex with or without ocular dysplasia were reviewed. It is proposed that these cases belong to a clinical entity that is distinguishable from the remaining 12 patients because of bilateral anophthalmia, cortical dysgenesis, and its resulting severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy. There is a possibility that these two cases are one severe end of certain spectrum disorders in which certain common gene(s) might be implicated.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / classification*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology
  • Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
  • Anophthalmos* / pathology
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities*
  • Cerebral Cortex / growth & development
  • Child
  • Cleft Lip
  • Cleft Palate
  • Encephalocele* / pathology
  • Epilepsy / congenital
  • Epilepsy / genetics
  • Epilepsy / pathology
  • Facies
  • Family Health
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Intellectual Disability / pathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Meningocele* / pathology
  • Skull / abnormalities
  • Syndrome