An open reading frame, designated tylN, has been identified by sequence analysis at one end of the tylosin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae, alongside a cluster of genes encoding the biosynthesis of dTDP-deoxyallose. This 6-deoxyhexose sugar is converted to mycinose, via bis O-methylation, following attachment to the polyketide lactone during tylosin biosynthesis. The deduced product of tylN is similar to several glycosyltransferases, authentic and putative, and displays a consensus sequence motif that appears to be characteristic of a sub-group of such enzymes. Specific disruption of tylN within the S. fradiae genome resulted in the production of demycinosyl-tylosin, whereas other glycosyltransferase activities involved in tylosin biosynthesis were not affected. Evidently, tylN encodes deoxyallosyl transferase.