Two consecutive, open, prospective trials of intermittent azithromycin (600 mg), usually given Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (TIW) for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease were initiated in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. Regimen A consisted of TIW azithromycin and daily ethambutol (15 mg/kg/day), daily rifabutin (300 mg/day), and initial twice weekly (BIW) streptomycin. Regimen B consisted of TIW azithromycin, TIW ethambutol (25 mg/kg/dose), TIW rifabutin (600 mg/dose), and initial BIW streptomycin. Of 19 patients enrolled in regimen A who completed at least 6 months of therapy, 14 (74%) had sputum samples become culture-negative. Of 39 patients enrolled in regimen B who completed at least 6 months of therapy, 24 (62%) had sputum conversion. These sputum conversion rates are comparable to previous rates at 6 months in patients receiving daily clarithromycin- or azithromycin-containing regimens. No resistance to azithromycin emerged with either regimen. This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of intermittent administration of medication for MAC lung disease.