Induction of necrosis by zinc in prostate carcinoma cells and identification of proteins increased in association with this induction

Eur J Biochem. 1998 May 1;253(3):766-70. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2530766.x.


Zinc exhibits inhibitory effects on apoptosis, and a deficiency in this metal generally causes this type of cell death to occur. In the present study, we found that exposure to zinc results in necrosis of prostate carcinoma cells. When zinc acetate was added to LNCaP or PC-3 cells in monolayer culture, they began to detach from the culture dishes, and viability was lost after 4-8 h. Most of the cell death was found to be due to necrosis as determined by double staining with fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V and ethidium bromide, and by detection of hypodiploid cells. Associated with the induction of necrosis was an increase in low molecular-mass proteins, identified by HPLC analysis to be thymosin beta10, parathymosin and GAGE in LNCaP cells, and thymosin beta4, parathymosin and metallothionein in PC-3. The time course of the increase of thymosin beta10 in LNCaP cells and thymosin beta4 in PC-3 cells was consistent with that of appearance of cell detachment and dead cells. These results indicate that zinc can induce necrosis and suggest that production of proteins including beta-thymosins is involved in induction of processes leading to cell detachment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Annexin A5
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Copper / pharmacology*
  • DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metallothionein / biosynthesis
  • Necrosis
  • Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Thymosin / analogs & derivatives
  • Thymosin / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Zinc / toxicity*


  • Annexin A5
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • thymosin beta(4)
  • Thymosin
  • Copper
  • thymosin beta(10)
  • Metallothionein
  • parathymosin alpha
  • Zinc