We cloned a gene for Na+/H+ antiporter from chromosomal DNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Introduction of the gene into host Escherichia coli mutant cells lacking all of the major Na+/H+ antiporters enabled the cells to grow in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, although the original host cells could not. Membrane vesicles prepared from cells of the transformant possessing the cloned gene showed Na+/H+ antiport activity. As a result of DNA sequencing, we found one open reading frame (nhaP). The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaP) of P. aeruginosa consists of 424 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 45486 Da, and hydropathy analysis suggested the presence of 12 putative transmembrane domains. We found no bacterial Na+/H+ antiporter which showed significant sequence similarity with the NhaP in the protein sequence database. The NhaP showed partial sequence similarity with animal Na+/H+ exchangers. Thus, the NhaP of P. aeruginosa is unique among bacterial antiporters.