Bronchial provocative test (BPT) with cockroach (CR) antigen was performed in 22 asthmatic subjects. Sixteen had positive reaction (CR-positive) and 6 had negative reaction (CR-negative) to CR antigen by skin test. Immediate bronchoconstrictive response was noted following the antigen inhalation in 14 of 16 CR-positive asthmatics, while none of 6 CR-negative asthmatics showed bronchospasm. Late asthmatic responses also were noted in 13 of 16 CR-positive asthmatic individuals following BPT with CR antigen. The dual asthmatic reactions in CR-positive individuals were mostly inhibited by the prior administration of cromolyn sodium. Three-fold increases in peripheral eosinophil counts were noted 24 hr following BPT with CR antigen. Results indicate that CR-induced asthmatic responses are allergen-specific and CR plays a causative role in allergic asthma in the population studied.