Progression of LNCaP prostate tumor cells during androgen deprivation: hormone-independent growth, repression of proliferation by androgen, and role for p27Kip1 in androgen-induced cell cycle arrest

Mol Endocrinol. 1998 Jul;12(7):941-53. doi: 10.1210/mend.12.7.0136.


The molecular mechanism of androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer after androgen ablation was explored in LNCaP cells. An androgen-dependent clonal subline of the LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line, LNCaP 104-S, progressed to a slow growing stage (104-R1) and then to a faster growing stage (104-R2) during more than 2 yr of continuous culture in the absence of androgen. Androgen-induced proliferation of 104-S cells is inhibited by the antiandrogen Casodex, while proliferation of 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells is unaffected by Casodex. This indicates that proliferation of 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells is not supported by low levels of androgen in the culture medium. Compared with LNCaP 104-S cells, both 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells express higher basal levels of androgen receptor (AR), and proliferation of these two cell lines is paradoxically repressed by androgen. After continuous passage in androgen-containing medium, 104-R1 cells reverted back to an androgen-dependent phenotype. The mechanism of androgenic repression of 104-R1 and 104-R2 sublines was further evaluated by examining the role of critical regulatory factors involved in the control of cell cycle progression. At concentrations that repressed growth, androgen transiently induced the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21waf1/cip1 in 104-R1 cells, while expression of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1 was persistently induced by androgen in both 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells. Induced expression of murine p27Kip1 in 104-R2 cells resulted in G1 arrest. Specific immunoprecipitates of Cdk2 but not Cdk4 from androgen-treated 104-R1 cells contained both p21waf1/cip1 and p27Kip1. This observation was confirmed by in vitro assay of histone H1 and Rb (retinoblastoma protein) phosphorylation by the proteins associated with the immune complex. Furthermore, inhibition of Cdk2 activity correlated with the accumulation of p27Kip1 and not p21waf1/cip1. From these results we conclude that androgenic repression of LNCaP 104-R1 and 104-R2 cell proliferation is due to the induction of p27Kip1, which in turn inhibits Cdk2, a factor critical for cell cycle progression and proliferation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / administration & dosage
  • Androgens / pharmacology*
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases*
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins*
  • Cell Division / drug effects*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • G1 Phase / drug effects
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Immunosorbent Techniques
  • Male
  • Metribolone / administration & dosage
  • Metribolone / pharmacology
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / physiology*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins*
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • Testosterone Congeners
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins*


  • Androgens
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Testosterone Congeners
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Metribolone
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases
  • CDK2 protein, human
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen