Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amlodipine, a long-acting calcium antagonist, on the left ventricular remodeling, including systolic and diastolic dysfunction, the change of cardiac gene expression in the myocardial infarcted rats (MI).
Methods: On the first day after myocardial infarction, the animals were randomly assigned to amlodipine treatment (n = 8) or untreated groups (MI; n = 9). We then performed Doppler-echocardiographic examinations and measured the hemodynamics at four weeks after myocardial infarction. Following these measurements, their cardiac mRNA was analyzed.
Results: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and central venous pressure (CVP) increased to 22 +/- 1 mmHg and 5 +/- 1 mmHg. Amlodipine reduced LVEDP and CVP to 15 +/- 1 mmHg (P < 0.01) and 3 +/- 0 mmHg (P < 0.01). The weight of right ventricle in MI was significantly larger than in the control rats (Control; 0.48 +/- 0.01 g/kg, MI; 0.79 +/- 0.04 g/kg, P < 0.01). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) in MI increased to 10.3 +/- 0.3 mm (P < 0.01) (Control; 6.2 +/- 0.3 mm). Amlodipine prevented an increase of the weight of right ventricle (0.62 +/- 0.03 g/kg, P < 0.01) and LVDd (7.9 +/- 0.2 mm, P < 0.01 to MI). The rats in MI showed systolic dysfunction shown by the decreased fractional shortening (Control; 31 +/- 2% versus MI; 15 +/- 1%, P < 0.01), and diastolic dysfunction shown by E wave deceleration rate (Control; 18.1 +/- 2.0 m/s2, MI; 32.6 +/- 2.1 m/s2, P < 0.01). Amlodipine significantly prevented systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The increases in beta-MHC, alpha-skeletal actin, and ANP mRNAs in the non-infarcted left ventricle and right ventricle at four weeks after the myocardial infarction were all significantly suppressed by the treatment with amlodipine. On the other hand, depressed alpha-MHC was restored to normal levels by amlodipine in both regions.
Conclusions: Amlodipine prevents the left ventricular remodeling process accompanied by systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and inhibits abnormal cardiac gene expression after myocardial infarction.