We have calculated a three-dimensional map of the yeast nuclear pore complex (yNPC) from frozen-hydrated specimens, thereby providing a direct comparison with the vertebrate NPC. Overall, the smaller yNPC is comprised of an octagonal inner spoke ring that is anchored within the nuclear envelope by a novel membrane-interacting ring. In addition, a cylindrical transporter is located centrally within the spokes and exhibits a variable radial expansion in projection that may reflect gating. The inner spoke ring, a transmembrane spoke domain, and the transporter are conserved between yeast and vertebrates; hence, they are required to form a functional NPC. However, significant alterations in NPC architecture have arisen during evolution that may be correlated with differences in nuclear transport regulation or mitotic behavior.