Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) has been considered as a precursor of prostatic cancer. Few reports have dealt with the long-term follow-up of PIN lesions, and there is still a lack of proof that PIN is a true premalignant lesion. The objective of this study was to evaluate PIN in the transition/central zone as a marker for subsequent development of prostatic cancer. The PIN status of tissue specimens from 789 men without prostate cancer was determined in 508 transurethral resections and 281 transvesical prostatic enucleations. All slides were reviewed blind and independently by two pathologists. The patients were followed for an average of 11 years, and the incidence of subsequent cancer and cause-specific survival were analysed. Thirty-six cases of clinical prostatic cancer occurred among the cohort of 789 men through follow-up. No association between the presence of PIN in the transition/central zone and subsequent cancer development was found. There was also no difference in survival related to PIN status among the subsequent cancer patients.