Chromatin structure plays a crucial regulatory role in the control of gene expression. In eukaryotic nuclei, enzymatic complexes can alter this structure by both targeted covalent modification and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Modification of histone amino termini by acetyltransferases and deacetylases correlates with transcriptional activation and repression [1-3], cell growth , and tumorigenesis . Chromatin-remodeling enzymes of the Snf2 superfamily use ATP hydrolysis to restructure nucleosomes and chromatin, events which correlate with activation of transcription [6,7]. We purified a multi-subunit complex from Xenopus laevis eggs which contains six putative subunits including the known deacetylase subunits Rpd3 and RbAp48/p46  as well as substoichiometric quantities of the deacetylase-associated protein Sin3 [9-13]. In addition, we identified one of the other components of the complex to be Mi-2, a Snf2 superfamily member previously identified as an autoantigen in the human connective tissue disease dermatomyositis [14,15]. We found that nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity precisely copurified with both histone deacetylase activity and the deacetylase enzyme complex. This association of a histone deacetylase with a Snf2 superfamily ATPase suggests a functional link between these two disparate classes of chromatin regulators.