SV40 Tag transformation of the normal invasive trophoblast results in a premalignant phenotype. I. Mechanisms responsible for hyperinvasiveness and resistance to anti-invasive action of TGFbeta

Int J Cancer. 1998 Jul 29;77(3):429-39. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19980729)77:3<429::aid-ijc20>;2-1.


Invasion of the uterus by first trimester human placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells depends on mechanisms shared by malignant cells. However, unlike tumor invasion, trophoblast invasion of the uterus is stringently controlled in situ by local molecules such as transforming growth factor (TGF)beta. Since EVT cells possess active invasion-associated genes but are nontumorigenic, our objective was to induce premalignant and then malignant phenotype into a normal EVT cell line in order to identify the molecular basis of tumor progression. Simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 Tag) was introduced into a normal human first trimester invasive EVT cell line, HTR8, established in our laboratory. Since the HTR8 line has a limited in vitro lifespan of 12-15 passages, SV40 Tag-transformed cells were selected on the basis of extended lifespan. A long-lived line, RSVT-2, was produced and an immortalized subclone, RSVT2/C, was further derived under a forced crisis regimen. We examined transformation-induced alterations in proliferative and invasive abilities, responses to the invasion and proliferation-regulating growth factor TGFbeta and changes in gene expression for invasion-associated enzymes or enzyme inhibitors. RSVT-2 and RSVT2/C cell lines were hyperproliferative and hyperinvasive when compared with the parental HTR8 cell line. They were also variably resistant to the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive signals from TGFbeta. Since both cell lines remained non-tumorigenic in nude mice, these properties indicate that they attained a premalignant phenotype. Both cell lines showed reduced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1, while TIMP-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-I expression was was also reduced in RSVT2/C cells, thus contributing to their hyperinvasiveness. Their resistance to the anti-invasive action of TGFbeta was explained by the failure of TGFbeta to upregulate TIMPs and PAI-I, in contrast to the TGFbeta-induced upregulation noted in parental HTR8 cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral, Tumor / biosynthesis
  • Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic*
  • Choriocarcinoma / pathology
  • Clone Cells
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control
  • Phenotype
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / biosynthesis
  • Precancerous Conditions / pathology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, First
  • Simian virus 40 / genetics
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / biosynthesis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / biosynthesis
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology*
  • Transplantation, Heterologous
  • Trophoblasts / cytology
  • Trophoblasts / pathology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Antigens, Viral, Tumor
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2