The main neurotransmitters in the vertebrate retina are glutamate, GABA and glycine. Their localization in the different cell types in the retina is well known. In addition, there exists a number of neuropeptides and other neuroactive substances that are only expressed by sparse populations of neurons. In recent years, molecular biology has led to the discovery of a rapidly increasing number of neurotransmitter receptors and the apparent simplicity of neurotransmitters in the mammalian retina is contrasted by the expression of a plethora of neurotransmitter receptors and receptor subunits (not mentioning receptor isoforms). This article will concentrate on glutamate receptors with the intention of reviewing some of the recent data on glutamate receptor expression in the mammalian retina and their possible involvement in retinal function.