Vinblastine plus ifosfamide plus cisplatin as initial salvage therapy in recurrent germ cell tumor

J Clin Oncol. 1998 Jul;16(7):2500-4. doi: 10.1200/JCO.1998.16.7.2500.


Purpose: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (VeIP) as second-line therapy in patients with recurrent germ cell tumors with previous treatment with cisplatin plus etoposide, usually in combination with bleomycin.

Patients and methods: From July 1984 through December 1989, 135 patients with progressive, disseminated germ cell tumors after cisplatin-etoposide-based combination therapy induction chemotherapy were treated with VeIP. Patients who progressed within 3 weeks of previous cisplatin therapy were not eligible. Progression was documented by biopsy or increasing serum markers. No exclusion was made on the basis of metastatic site or performance status. The dosages were vinblastine 0.11 mg/kg/d (days 1 and 2), ifosfamide 1.2 gm/m2/d (days 1 through 5), and cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d (days 1 through 5), with courses repeated every 21 days for four cycles.

Results: Sixty-seven (49.6%) patients achieved a disease-free status after chemotherapy with or without surgical resection of residual carcinoma or teratoma. Overall, 42 (32%) patients are alive and 32 (23.7%) are continuously free of disease. None of the 32 patients with nonseminomatous extragonadal tumors are disease-free compared with 30 of 100 patients with gonadal primaries. Two of three extragonadal seminomas are continuously disease-free.

Conclusion: VeIP is capable of producing durable complete remissions in patients with disseminated germ cell cancer who relapse after cisplatin-etoposide-based induction therapy. Long-term disease-free survival is not seen in those patients with extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cisplatin / administration & dosage
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Germinoma / drug therapy*
  • Germinoma / secondary
  • Humans
  • Ifosfamide / administration & dosage
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vinblastine / administration & dosage


  • Vinblastine
  • Cisplatin
  • Ifosfamide

Supplementary concepts

  • VeIP protocol