Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurring attacks of fever and serositis. It affects primarily North African Jews, Armenians, Turks and Arabs, in which a founder effect has been demonstrated. The marenostrin-pyrin-encoding gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for the disease ( MEFV ), on the basis of the identification of putative mutations clustered in exon 10 (M680V, M694I, M694V and V726A), each segregating with one ancestral haplotype. In a search for additional MEFV mutations in 120 apparently non-founder FMF chromosomes, we observed eight novel mutations in exon 2 (E148Q, E167D and T267I), exon 5 (F479L) and exon 10 (I692del K695R, A744S and R761H). Except for E148Q and K695R, all mutations were found in a single chromosome. Mutation E148Q was found in all ethnic groups studied and in association with a novel ancestral haplotype in non-Ashkenazi Jews (S2). Altogether, these new findings definitively establish the marenostrin/pyrin-encoding gene as the MEFV locus.