Adherence with inhaled beta-agonists and corticosteroids in 24 asthmatic children was tracked over 3 months utilizing the metered-dose inhaler chronolog (MDIC). Patients seldom took all of their medications as prescribed, and failed to take any inhaled corticosteroid doses on a median of 41.8% of days or inhaled beta-agonists on 28.1% of days despite prescribed daily use. Medication nonadherence was correlated with lower levels of asthma knowledge (Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire) and family dysfunction (Family Assessment Device), but not child behavior disorder (Child Behavior Checklist). Patients tended to dramatically over-report medication use. Improved identification of the markers of nonadherence can directly facilitate more efficient targeting of behavioral interventions, resulting in improved adherence, better illness control, and less requirement of urgent medication intervention.