The objective of the study was to evaluate the economic consequences of a general childhood vaccination programme against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in Sweden. A retrospective pre-vaccination annual cohort of 0-4-y-old children was compared with an annual cohort of the same age group after a complete implemented vaccination program against Hib. The cost analysis shows that vaccination against Hib is cost saving when indirect costs are included in the analysis. In the cost-benefit analysis it is shown that society will gain approximately 88 million Swedish Crowns (SEK) annually when Hib vaccination is totally implemented. In conclusion, general childhood Hib vaccination is a cost-effective public health intervention in Swedish society.