Gender differences among smokers and quitters in the Working Well Trial

Prev Med. Jul-Aug 1998;27(4):553-61. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0325.


Background: Gender differences in smoking and smoking cessation among participants in the Working Well Trial are characterized.

Methods: A prospective randomized matched-pair evaluation was conducted among 90 predominantly blue-collar worksites. Cross-sectional surveys of employees' tobacco use behaviors were conducted at baseline and after a 2.5-year smoking cessation intervention. Respondents included 5,523 females and 12,313 males at baseline and 4,663 females and 10,919 males at follow-up. The main outcome measures included self-reported continuous smoking abstinence rates for 7 days and for 6 months.

Results: Smoking prevalence was significantly higher for women than for men at baseline, but not at follow-up. Variables believed to influence smoking cessation were compared at baseline. Significant gender differences were found for number of cigarettes smoked/day, number of previous quit attempts, job strain, stage of change, and behavioral processes of change. At follow-up, no gender differences in quit rates were observed; however, women in the intervention condition were more likely to quit than women in the control condition, whereas no differences were seen among men by treatment condition.

Conclusions: Gender is not a strong predictor of smoking cessation in this population; however, women were more likely to quit with an intervention than without one.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gender Identity*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Workplace*