A new auxin homeostasis gene in Arabidopsis called SUR2 has been identified. This gene, mapped to the bottom of chromosome 4, is defined by two recessive nuclear mutants designated superroot2 (sur2), which display several abnormalities reminiscent of auxin effects. A number of these characteristics are similar to the phenotype of the previously described auxin-overproducing mutant superroot1 (sur1); however, several lines of evidences reveal that the SUR2 gene defines a new key point in the regulation of endogenous auxin concentrations. The phenotype of the sur1 sur2 double mutant is additive. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry indicated increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid correlated with a decreased level of bound auxin in the sur2 mutant. These results suggest that SUR2 may be involved in the control of auxin conjugation.