Separation of chromatids of all mitotic chromosomes, here called total premature chromatid separation (total PCS), was observed in 67 to 87.5% of repeated cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two unrelated infants. Also noted was a variety of mosaic aneuploidies, especially trisomies, double trisomies, and monosomies, to be called mosaic variegated aneuploidy. The infants both showed severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, profound developmental retardation, uncontrollable seizures, severe microcephaly, hypoplasia of the brain, Dandy-Walker anomaly, abnormal facial appearance, and bilateral cataract. Patient 1, a girl, in addition had a cleft palate, multiple renal cysts, and Wilms tumor of the left kidney. Whereas patient 2, a boy, had ambiguous external genitalia. They both died within 2 years of age. In the two families of the infants, their parents and three other members showed 2.5 to 47% lymphocytes with total PCS but without mosaic variegated aneuploidy or phenotypic abnormalities. Another 10 relatives studied showed 0 to 1% cells with total PCS and so were judged negative for the total PCS trait. It was deduced that the total PCS trait in the two families was transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion, and the two affected infants were homozygous for the trait.