In utero programming of chronic disease

Clin Sci (Lond). 1998 Aug;95(2):115-28.


1. Many human fetuses have to adapt to a limited supply of nutrients. In doing so they permanently change their structure and metabolism. 2. These 'programmed' changes may be the origins of a number of diseases in later life, including coronary heart disease and the related disorders stroke, diabetes and hypertension. 3. This review examines the evidence linking these diseases to fetal undernutrition and provides an overview of previous studies in this area.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chronic Disease
  • Coronary Disease / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Placental Insufficiency / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*