An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clone, AtTPS1, that encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was isolated. The identity of this protein is supported by both structural and functional evidence. On one hand, the predicted sequence of the protein encoded by AtTPS1 showed a high degree of similarity with trehalose-6-phosphate synthases of different organisms. On the other hand, expression of the AtTPS1 cDNA in the yeast tps1 mutant restored its ability to synthesize trehalose and suppressed its growth defect related to the lack of trehalose-6-phosphate. Genomic organization and expression analyses suggest that AtTPS1 is a single-copy gene and is expressed constitutively at very low levels.