The proteins that reside in the Golgi carry out functions associated with post-translational modifications, including glycosylation and proteolytic processing, membrane transport, recycling of endoplasmic reticulum proteins and maintenance of the structural organisation of the organelle itself. The latter includes Golgi stacking, interconnections between stacks and the microtubule-dependent positioning of the organelle within the cell. There are a number of distinct groups of Golgi membrane proteins, including glycosyltransferases, recycling trans-Golgi network (TGN) proteins, peripheral membrane proteins and receptors. Considerable effort has been directed at understanding the basis of the localisation of Golgi glycosyltransferases and recycling TGN proteins; in both cases there is increasing evidence that multiple signals may be involved in their specific localisation. A number of models for the Golgi retention of glycosyltransferases have been proposed including oligomerisation, lipid-mediated sorting and intra-Golgi retrograde transport. More information is required to determine the contribution of each of these potential mechanisms in the targeting of different glycosyltransferases. Future work is also likely to focus on the relationship between the localisation of resident Golgi proteins and the maintenance of Golgi structure.