Background: Dietary sodium restriction enhances the antiproteinuric and blood pressure lowering effect of ACE inhibition. In clinical practice, however, long-term compliance to a low-sodium diet may be difficult to obtain. We therefore investigated whether the blunting of the antiproteinuric and blood pressure lowering efficacy of ACE inhibition by high sodium intake can be restored by the addition of a diuretic.
Patients and methods: Seven proteinuric patients with non-diabetic renal disease on chronic ACE inhibition were studied during three consecutive 4-week periods: low sodium (50 mmol/day), high sodium (200 mmol/day) and high sodium plus hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg o.i.d.).
Results: During low sodium intake proteinuria was 3.1 (0.7-5.2) g/day, during high sodium intake proteinuria increased to 4.5 (1.6-9.2) g/day (P < 0.05). Interestingly, addition of hydrochlorothiazide again reduced proteinuria to 2.8 (0.6-5.8) g/day (P < 0.05). Mean arterial blood pressure was 89 (84-96), 98 (91-104) and 89 (83-94) mmHg (P < 0.05) during the three periods, respectively.
Conclusion: Addition of hydrochlorothiazide can overcome the blunting of the therapeutic efficacy of ACE inhibition on proteinuria and blood pressure by a high sodium intake.