The hOGG1 gene encodes a DNA glycosylase that excises 8-hydroxyguanine (oh8Gua) from damaged DNA. Structural analyses of the hOGG1 gene and its transcripts were performed in normal and lung cancer cells. Due to a genetic polymorphism at codon 326, hOGG1-Ser326 and hOGG1-Cys326 proteins were produced in human cells. Activity in the repair of oh8Gua was greater in hOGG1-Ser326 protein than in hOGG1-Cys326 protein in the complementation assay of an E. coli mutant defective in the repair of oh8Gua. Two isoforms of hOGG1 transcripts produced by alternative splicing encoded distinct hOGG1 proteins: one with and the other without a putative nuclear localization signal. Loss of heterozygosity at the hOGG1 locus was frequently (15/ 23, 62.2%) detected in lung cancer cells, and a cell line NCI-H526 had a mutation leading to the formation of the transcripts encoding a truncated hOGG1 protein. However, the oh8Gua levels in nuclear DNA were similar among lung cancer cells and leukocytes irrespective of the type of hOGG1 proteins expressed. These results suggest that the oh8Gua levels are maintained at a steady level, even though multiple hOGG1 proteins are produced due to genetic polymorphisms, mutations and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene.