Lysophosphatidate (LPA) is an intercellular phospholipid messenger with a wide range of biologic effects. The first discovered source of LPA in the human body were activated platelets, but several other sites of LPA generation are now known. The number of cellular interactions is also growing steadily and responses to the compound range wide, from induction of mitogenesis to neurite retraction. LPA acts via a specific G protein-coupled receptor, of which one or more subtypes may exist. Intracellularly, this receptor activates several heterotrimeric G proteins. LPA induces cell proliferation via the small GTP-binding proteins ras, and triggers actin-based cytoskeletal events through rho. This review describes the most relevant recent developments in our understanding of LPA signaling.