Objective: To determine the association of social class with prevalence of coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Design and setting: Total community cross sectional survey of 20 randomly selected streets in the city of Moradabad.
Subjects and methods: 1806 urban (904 men and 902 women) randomly selected subjects aged 25-64 years. The survey methods were physician and dietitian administered questionnaire, physical examination and electrocardiography. All subjects were divided into social classes 1-5 based on attributes of education, occupation, per capita income, housing condition and consumer durables and other family assets.
Results: Social classes 1, 2 and 3 were mainly high and middle socioeconomic groups and 3 and 4 low income groups. The prevalence of CAD and coronary risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and sedentary lifestyle were significantly higher among social classes 1, 2 and 3 in both sexes compared to lower social classes. Mean serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly associated with higher and middle social classes. Smoking was significantly associated with lower social classes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment of age revealed that social class was positively associated with CAD (odds ratio: men 0.84, women 0.86), hypercholesterolemia (men 0.87, women 0.85), hypertension (men 0.91, women 0.89), diabetes mellitus (men 0.71, women 0.68) and sedentary lifestyle (men 0.68, women 0.66). Smoking was significantly associated with CAD in men.
Conclusion: Social class 1, 2 and 3 in an urban population of India have a higher prevalence of CAD and coronary risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and sedentary lifestyle in both sexes.