Post-renal-transplantation bone disease is a well known entity. Immunosuppressive agents and persistence of hyperparathyroidism have primarily been implicated in its etiology. Renal transplantation patients are unique in that the bone changes occur on a background of pre-existing renal osteodystrophy. This review focuses on post-renal-transplantation bone disease. Unfortunately, the existing data in the review period, besides being scanty, provide conflicting information. This is due to the diversity of immunosuppressive regimens employed, the patient populations studied, diagnostic tools and criteria used by different centers, and the lack of formal trials.