Posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans with spinal cord injury: trauma-related risk factors

J Trauma Stress. 1998 Jul;11(3):505-20. doi: 10.1023/A:1024404729251.


Trauma-related risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined in a sample of 125 veterans with spinal cord injury. Category of injury was found to be the most consistent predictor of PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity with paraplegia predicting more PTSD symptoms than quadriplegia. The occurrence of a head injury at the time of the trauma was found to predict PTSD symptom severity measures, but not PTSD diagnosis. Trauma recency consistently predicted Impact of Event score (IES) and was found to be related to current PTSD severity and lifetime PTSD diagnosis in multiple but not simple regression models. Trauma severity was found to be significantly related to self-reported PTSD symptoms and lifetime PTSD diagnosis in simple but not in multiple regression analyses. Type of trauma, alcohol or other drug (AOD) use during the trauma and loss of consciousness (LOC) during the trauma were not consistently associated with PTSD symptom severity or diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Combat Disorders / diagnosis
  • Combat Disorders / psychology*
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnosis
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Status Schedule
  • Middle Aged
  • Paraplegia / diagnosis
  • Paraplegia / psychology
  • Quadriplegia / diagnosis
  • Quadriplegia / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / diagnosis
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / psychology*
  • Veterans / psychology*
  • Vietnam