The efficacy of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (PS) and chloroquine plus chlorpheniramine, a histamine H1 receptor blocker which reverses chloroquine insensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, was evaluated in 100 consecutive children with acute symptomatic uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Parasitaemia on day 3 following initiation of treatment, fever and symptom clearance times were significantly lower in the chloroquine/chlorpheniramine (CQ/CP) combination group than in the PS group. The cure rate was also significantly higher in the combination group. The combination cured all children who had failed PS treatment. Gametocytaemia and the gametocyte carrier rate following therapy were significantly lower in the combination group than in those receiving PS. Both treatments were well tolerated but adverse drug reactions were commoner in the children given PS. CQ/CP is effective in PS treatment failure in Nigerian children and may be useful for this condition in African children in general.