Comparative Efficacy of Chloroquine Plus Chlorpheniramine and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in Acute Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Nigerian Children

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Jan-Feb 1998;92(1):77-81. doi: 10.1016/s0035-9203(98)90964-6.

Abstract

The efficacy of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (PS) and chloroquine plus chlorpheniramine, a histamine H1 receptor blocker which reverses chloroquine insensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, was evaluated in 100 consecutive children with acute symptomatic uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Parasitaemia on day 3 following initiation of treatment, fever and symptom clearance times were significantly lower in the chloroquine/chlorpheniramine (CQ/CP) combination group than in the PS group. The cure rate was also significantly higher in the combination group. The combination cured all children who had failed PS treatment. Gametocytaemia and the gametocyte carrier rate following therapy were significantly lower in the combination group than in those receiving PS. Both treatments were well tolerated but adverse drug reactions were commoner in the children given PS. CQ/CP is effective in PS treatment failure in Nigerian children and may be useful for this condition in African children in general.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antimalarials / adverse effects
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Artemether
  • Artemisinins*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chloroquine / adverse effects
  • Chloroquine / therapeutic use*
  • Chlorpheniramine / adverse effects
  • Chlorpheniramine / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Resistance
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists / adverse effects
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / parasitology
  • Male
  • Nigeria
  • Parasitemia / drug therapy
  • Parasitemia / etiology
  • Pyrimethamine / adverse effects
  • Pyrimethamine / therapeutic use*
  • Sesquiterpenes / therapeutic use
  • Sulfadoxine / adverse effects
  • Sulfadoxine / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Failure

Substances

  • Antimalarials
  • Artemisinins
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Sulfadoxine
  • Chloroquine
  • Artemether
  • Pyrimethamine