Renal complications of HIV infection are clinically and morphologically diverse. These may affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartments. Tubulointerstitial injury predominates in most autopsy-based studies, whereas glomerular disease is most frequently identified in biopsy-based studies. The most common glomerular lesion is HIV-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and related mesangiopathies (collectively termed HIV-associated nephropathy). Increasingly, a variety of immune complex-mediated glomerular diseases such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy and lupus-like nephritis, as well as hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have been reported. The spectrum of tubulointerstitial lesions includes acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, renal infection, and neoplasms including lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The pathological features of these conditions are reviewed with emphasis on clinical-pathological correlations and pathogenesis.