The primary purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on all aspects of air polishing. Topics evaluated include efficacy and efficiency of stain removal, effects on hard and soft tissues and restorations, safety issues, and alternative uses. In addition, a suggested technique, common concerns, and possible solutions is addressed. This discussion should enable the clinician to decide the most appropriate treatment modality for each patient. Air polishing has been studied extensively and when used appropriately, provides a safe, efficient, and contemporary approach to achieving a variety of treatment goals. Future research directions also are suggested.