Human papillomavirus is thought to be an etiological factor for urological tumors such as penile cancer. However, there is much conflicting data surrounding prostatic cancer. We recently established a highly sensitive nested PCR method with consensus human papillomavirus (HPV) primers for the detection of many high-risk HPV types. HPV DNA from the long-control region (LCR) to E7 open reading frame was amplified with first primer pairs and subsequently amplified with second internal E6-E7 primers. Our nested PCR method could detect HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58 and some undetermined HPV DNAs. Using this method, we investigated the existence of HPV DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of the prostate. We found HPV DNA in three of 71 specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in none of 38 prostatic carcinomas. These three samples were infected with HPV 16. These results suggest that HPV is not a causal factor for prostatic cancer and BPH.