Id helix-loop-helix proteins in cell growth and differentiation

Trends Cell Biol. 1998 Feb;8(2):58-65.


Id helix-loop-helix proteins function at a general level as positive regulators of cell growth and as negative regulators of cell differentiation. They act as dominant-negative antagonists of other helix-loop-helix transcription factors, which drive cell lineage commitment and differentiation in diverse cell types of higher eukaryotes. In addition, the functions of Id proteins are integrated with cell-cycle-regulatory pathways orchestrated by cyclin-dependent kinases and the retinoblastoma protein. Here, some of the recent advances that highlight the importance of Id proteins as regulatory intermediates for coordinating differentiation-linked gene expression with cell-cycle control in response to extracellular signalling are reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Eukaryotic Cells / chemistry
  • Eukaryotic Cells / cytology
  • Eukaryotic Cells / physiology*
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs / genetics*
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Repressor Proteins*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors