Lymph node genesis is induced by signaling through the lymphotoxin beta receptor

Immunity. 1998 Jul;9(1):71-9. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80589-0.


We investigated lymphotoxin (LT) and TNF function in lymph node genesis and cellular organization by manipulating LTbeta-R and TNF-R signaling. Lymph nodes developed in LTalpha-/- mice treated in utero with agonist anti-LTbeta-R monoclonal antibody. Thus, LTbeta-R signaling mediates lymph node genesis. Surprisingly, mucosal lymph nodes that can develop independently of LTalphabeta/LTbeta-R interaction were generated. Normal mice treated in utero with LTbeta-R-Ig and TNF-R55-Ig or anti-TNF lacked all lymph nodes, indicating that TNF signaling contributes to lymph node genesis. Lymph nodes generated in LTalpha-/- mice had disrupted cellular organization. Therefore, LTbeta-R signaling during gestation is not sufficient to establish normal cellular microarchitecture. We conclude that LT and TNF play critical roles in the genesis and cellular organization of lymph nodes.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Cricetinae
  • Female
  • Ligands
  • Lymph Nodes / embryology*
  • Lymphotoxin beta Receptor
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha / genetics
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / immunology
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
  • Signal Transduction*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD
  • Ligands
  • Ltbr protein, mouse
  • Lymphotoxin beta Receptor
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I