Spike transmission probability between pyramidal cells and interneurons in the CA1 pyramidal layer was investigated in the behaving rat by the simultaneous recording of neuronal ensembles. Population synchrony was strongest during sharp wave (SPW) bursts. However, the increase was three times larger for pyramidal cells than for interneurons. The contribution of single pyramidal cells to the discharge of interneurons was often large (up to 0.6 probability), as assessed by the presence of significant (<3 ms) peaks in the cross-correlogram. Complex-spike bursts were more effective than single spikes. Single cell contribution was higher between SPW bursts than during SPWs or theta activity. Hence, single pyramidal cells can reliably discharge interneurons, and the probability of spike transmission is behavior dependent.