Autoantibodies directed to a variety of cellular antigens and organelles are a feature of autoimmune diseases. They have proven useful in a clinical setting to establish diagnosis, estimate prognosis, follow disease progression, alter therapy, and initiate new investigations. Cellular and molecular biologists have used autoantibodies as probes to identify molecules involved in key cellular processes. One of the most interesting sets of autoantibodies are those that target antigens within the mitotic apparatus (MA). The MA includes chromosomes, spindle microtubules and centrosomes. The identification, localization, function, and clinical relevance of MA autoantigens is the focus of this review.