In a prospective multicentre study described previously on prediabetic events in siblings of index cases with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 31 children developed clinical diabetes during the observation period and 51 children seroconverted for islet cell antibodies or insulin autoantibodies. By using nonserotype specific EIA and RIA, it has shown recently that enterovirus infections in both groups were frequently associated with increases of islet cell antibody and/or insulin autoantibody titres. Serum specimens sequentially collected from 12 children during the prediabetic period were still available and were then tested for serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. Plaque-neutralization assays were carried out for coxsackievirus A9, coxsackievirus B types 1 to 6, and echovirus types 1 and 11. An unequivocal monotypic increase in neutralizing antibodies was observed on seven occasions in six children, on one occasion with coxsackievirus A9, one with coxsackievirus B1, two with coxsackievirus B2, two with coxsackievirus B3, and one with coxsackievirus B5. In four patients, the infection was associated temporally with increases in the levels of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies and/or antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, and in three other patients, it coincided with the clinical onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These results suggest that the association of enterovirus infections with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is not restricted to serotype 4 of coxsackie B viruses suspected previously, but that several different serotypes might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.