A review of the amyloidoses that infiltrate the heart

Clin Cardiol. 1998 Aug;21(8):547-52. doi: 10.1002/clc.4960210804.


Primary amyloidosis, systemic senile amyloidosis, isolated atrial amyloidosis, and transthyretin isoleucine 122 amyloidosis frequently involve the heart. Amyloid fibrils infiltrate the myocardium, impairing ventricular contraction and relaxation. The clinical manifestations of cardiac infiltration in these disorders are protean, though congestive heart failure and arrhythmias are most common. Treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is directed at the underlying cause and at relief of symptoms. Heart transplantation is not a viable treatment option for patients with primary amyloidosis; its role in the other amyloidoses has not been established. The prognosis of patients with cardiac amyloidosis varies and is largely determined by the underlying disorder responsible for amyloid infiltration.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Amyloid / analysis
  • Amyloidosis*
  • Cardiomyopathies*
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / pathology


  • Amyloid