A novel member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family has been identified and characterized. This gene, termed LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), encodes a transmembrane protein which has 71% identity and is structurally similar to the protein encoded by LRP5, a proposed candidate gene for type 1 diabetes located on human chromosome 11q13. LRP6 maps to human chromosome 12p11-p13. Mouse Lrp6 encodes a protein that has 98% identity to human LRP6 and maps to chromosome 6. Unlike other members of the LDLR family, LRP6 and LRP5 display a unique pattern of four epidermal growth factor (EGF) and three LDLR repeats in the extracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domain of LRP6 is not similar to other members of the LDLR family, while comparison with LRP5 reveals proline-rich motifs that may mediate protein-protein interactions. Thus, it is likely that LRP6 and LRP5 comprise a new class of the LDLR family.