Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are used in patients who have myocardial infarction with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Few data are available in patients whose LV function is within the normal range.
Methods and results: The Fosinopril in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study was a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of 285 patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction and was designed to investigate the effects of the early (<9 hours) administration of fosinopril and thrombolysis on (1) changes in echocardiographically evaluated LV volumes at 3 months and (2) long-term occurrence of death and congestive heart failure. LV volumes were normal at baseline in more than 70% of patients and were comparable between groups both at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Fosinopril-treated patients showed a 30% reduction in the 2-year combined prevalence of death or moderate-to-severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association class III-IV) despite having a worse clinical profile at baseline. The benefit of fosinopril was confirmed both in patients without congestive heart failure at admission and in those with ejection fraction >40% at baseline. Moreover, the incidence of significant ventricular arrhythmias was lower in the fosinopril group (0.8% vs 6.0%, p < 0.02).
Conclusions: The results of the Fosinopril in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study suggest that early treatment with fosinopril can benefit patients with acute myocardial infarction in addition to a prevention of LV remodeling.