The Cdx2 gene is one of three murine homologues of the Drosophila homeobox gene caudal. Mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Cdx2 exhibit a variable phenotype including tail abnormalities, stunted growth and a homeotic shift of vertebrae. Most strikingly, however, 90% of heterozygous mice were reported to develop multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps, most notably in the proximal colon (Chawengsaksophak et al., 1997). These observations led us to propose that mutation of CDX2 may be involved in the genesis of some human colorectal tumours. A survey of DNA from 85 colorectal tumours revealed that one with extensive microsatellite instability (RER+ phenotype) has mutations in both alleles of CDX2. Both mutations occur in coding regions which contain repetitive elements and are consistent with those found in RER + tumours.