Comparison of the LiPA HIV-1 RT test, selective PCR and direct solid phase sequencing for the detection of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations

J Virol Methods. 1998 Jul;73(1):77-82. doi: 10.1016/s0166-0934(98)00043-3.


The performance to detect drug resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-1 was compared for direct solid phase sequencing, selective polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and the new line probe assay (LIPA) HIV-1 RT. The three tests were undertaken on 50 plasma samples from 25 treatment-experienced patients under combination therapy with dideoxynucleoside analogues. LiPA HIV-1 RT gave interpretable results in 80 to 96% of the samples depending on the codon of interest. In 2% of the samples a failure to amplify resulted in uninterpretable results for sequencing. ARMS gave no result in seven samples (14%). Overall, there was a 73 to 100% concordance between the three methods. In this study, LiPA HIV-1 RT proved to be an accurate and reliable alternative to DNA sequencing for the detection of drug resistance mutations in patient samples.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Codon
  • DNA Probes*
  • Didanosine / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine / therapeutic use
  • Mutation*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods
  • Zalcitabine / therapeutic use
  • Zidovudine / pharmacology*
  • Zidovudine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Codon
  • DNA Probes
  • Lamivudine
  • Zidovudine
  • Zalcitabine
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • Didanosine